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Evaluation Of Biodegradation Ability Of Bacterial Consortium In Comparison With Combination Of It With Plant Species For Their Phytoremediation Potential

Oil and its derivatives spills have been a major issue across decades due to transport, import, Export and accidents with its wider use in industry and it is difficult to be biodegraded. Many techniques were developed to clean up petroleum contaminated soil, among all of them, the biological treatments are more efficient and economic compared to chemical and physical ones. Bioremediation is applied as a treatment technology that is cost-effective, ecologically friendly and efficient for the decontamination of hydrocarbon pollution. In this study, crude oil contaminated soil samples were collected from oil extraction fields in Libya. The bacterial strains were isolated using selective media (agar containing crude oil). Isolated bacteria were identified using microbial features and selective media and then used in biodegradation experiment of 0.5% and 1% of crude oil contaminated soil. The bacterial concentration was adjusted to 1.5 x 108 scf/ml before supplementing in the soil. Three plants were chosen to perform experiment (Malva punilora, Ricinus communis and Triticum repens) on 0.5% and 1% crude oil contaminated soil. The chosen species were implanted directly in the contaminated soil together with prepared bacterial consortia. Soil sample (triplicate) was taken from each experiment at zero time, after 15 days, and 30 days of experiment, hexane was added to the soil samples and the absorbance was measured using spectrophotometer at 360 nm. As a result, two bacterial strains proved to be oil biodegrades were isolated and identified as Escherichia coli and other bacillus bacteria. The percentage of crude oil removal by bacteria was more than 60% in the soil contaminated by 0.5% of crude oil after 15 and 30 days of experiment, while it was 30% at 1% crude oil contaminated soil after 15 days and increased to be 75% after 30 days of experiment. The experiment included combination between plants and bacteria resulted in the 90% of removal by Triticum repens and bacterial mixture at 0.5 crude oil after 30 days, and 80% of removal for 1% contaminated soil using the same plant. In general, both techniques were effective in crude oil removal. Triticum repens showed good results in crude oil removal. This suggests more field application of this plant on crude oil contaminated oil
Sakina Salem Mohammed Saadawi(9-2022)
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Canadian-Journal-of-Physiology-and-Pharmacology

The synthesis of the glucoside, 3β-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-14-hydroxy-14β-pregn-4-en-20-one, a 14β-hydroxyprogesterone glucoside (14β-OHP-glu), is described. This compound has an IC50 of 1 μM in a [3H]ouabain binding assay, and is about 10 times more potent than the aglycone. Like 14β-hydroxyprogesterone, the glucoside enhances contractility of isolated cardiac muscle. 14β-OHP-glu or ouabain, when infused at comparable doses into the renal artery of the anesthetized rat, markedly increases urine volume. Whereas ouabain significantly enhances urinary potassium excretion with little or no effect on sodium excretion, 14β-OHP-glu promotes a marked natriuresis with no significant effect on potassium excretion.
Talal H Zeglam, Omran fhid(7-2017)

Does food have anything to do with Memory and Intelligence? A Review on Alzheimer's disease Fighting

مرض الزهايمر هو اضطراب عصبي يصيب الدماغ بتتقلص تدريجي وبشكل لا رجعة فيه ويسبب ضمور وموت الخلايا العصبية. لا يوجد علاجناجع لمرض الزهايمر حتى يومنا هذا والذي يجعل من الضروري تقليل حدوثه بدلاً من علاج المرض بعد حدوثه. ولذلك أصبح ضروريا أولوية التركيز على الوقاية منه ومعرفة أسبابه التي تؤدي إلى تدهور المخ بعد أن كان نشيطا وقويا بشكل كامل. يلعب الطعام دورًا مهمًا وظيفة. ينصب التركيز على العناصر والمواد المهمة التي تزداد الذكاء والمهارات وتألق التفكير والذاكرة التي تستمر مع طوال حياته بعد إطعامه بعناصر وظيفية مهمة وفيتامينات مكملة. ويلاحظ أنه مع تطوير وزيادة المواد الغذائية المكررة التي دخلت جسم الإنسان مؤخرًا كان هناك زيادة كبيرة وتسارع في حدوث مرض الزهايمر المرض بمعدلات مقلقة ومخيفة. لقد أصبح الأمر يستحق إعادة النظر فيما نأكله والتركيز على الغذاء الصحيح وهدفه كأحد العوامل تؤثر على صحة خلايا الدماغ. لذلك أصبح الوعي الغذائي المكملات الغذائية الأساسية ضرورية لعمر معين للوقاية قبل الاصابة بالمرض. Alzheimer's disease is a neurological disorder that causes the brain to gradually and irreversibly shrink, atrophy, and die. There is no successful treatment for Alzheimer's disease to this day that makes it necessary to reduce its occurrence rather than treat the disease after it has occurred. Therefore, it became necessary and priority to focus on preventing it and knowing the causes that lead to the deterioration of the brain after it was fully active and strong. Back in the early stages of brain development in which food plays an important role. The focus comes on the important elements and materials that increase intelligence, skills, brilliance of thinking and memory, which continue with the person throughout his life after feeding him with important functional elements and vitamins. It is noted that with the development and increase of processed and refined food items that have recently entered the human body, there has been a significant increase and acceleration in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease at alarming and frightening rates. It has become worth reconsidering what we eat and focusing on the right food and its goal as one of the factors affecting the health of brain cells. Therefore nutritional awareness has become essential and nutritional supplementation is essential for a certain age as a fighter and as a preventer before contracting the disease.
Hanan S. Abushwereb(4-2022)
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Green Synthesis and Characterization of Libyan Propolis Nanoparticles and its Biological Activity

Abstract: The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology, derived from bees and ultramodernization of various analytical devices, has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. This study aimed to prepare, characterize and examine the stability and evaluation of the antioxidant and the antibacterial activity of Libyan propolis. Propolis Nanoparticles PNP were prepared using particle size reduction, then Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) at a magnification of X 25000, was used for accurate evaluation of the size distribution of NPs. Three different concentration (10, 5, 2.5 mg/ml) of propolis and nano-propolis powder were tested for their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. The quantitative antioxidant activity test results using UV Spectrophotometer absorbance at 517 nm. The antibacterial activities of propolis and prepared nano propolis at different concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5mg/ml) were tested on bacterial strain, Klebsiella, human mouth, skin, and surface bacteria using cup cut diffusion method. The findings exhibited that the prepared propolis Nanoparticles (PNPs) were generally non-spherical with a size 100-200 nm. The PNP was a nano-sized particle around 316 nm in diameter. Zeta potential of PNP showed a negative surface charge value (− 48 mV) which was sufficiently high to avoid NPs aggregation. This value represents a stable and dispersed suspension of NPs and disables the tendency of aggregations in a short in period of time. Poly dispersity index (PdI) of synthetized PNP was used as a measurement of the size distribution. PdI values for PrNP were generally uniform with PdI 0.3 indicating monodispersity of the prepared systems. The propolis and PNPs displayed good antioxidant activity with inhibition percentage (77%, 46% and 18%) for propolis and (82%, 66% and 37%) for PNPs. Propolis nanoparticles showed to have more antibacterial effect compared to propolis. Libyan propolis nanoparticles has shown to be potential candidates as antioxidant and antibacterial agent.
Hanin Nafed . Mughrbi, Sakina Salem Mohammed Saadawi, Bushra M. Dakhil, Rokaya O. Amara, Riham M. El-Moslemany, Khadija O. Turkman, Masarra A. Daraweel, , Khairi A. Alennabi, Rabia Omar abdullah Alghazeer(4-2022)
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Microscopical Characters, Heavy Metals Level and Histopathological Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves in Female Mice

ABSTRACT Aims: The study is intended to compare the freshly collected henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) and the market henna in term of microscopical key elements and heavy metals contamination. Moreover, this study is aimed to investigate the effect of henna and its oily additives on kidney histology in female mice. Study Design: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli and Animals House, Biotechnology Research Center in 2010. Methodology: The powders of collected and market henna have been subjected to a microscopical study with magnification of 5x then 40 x to investigate the henna key elements, which are calcium oxalate clusters, anomocytic stomata, starch grains and fibers. Three elements: arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pd) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAs) Original Research Article
Hanin Nafed . Mughrbi, Surur A. Ahmed, Mukhtar R. Haman, Laila A. Ghashout, Elsayed R. Elattar(5-2020)
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Physical Properties, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Raw South Africa Shea Butter against Samples from Libyan Market

Abstract – Vigorous research has been conducted into the phenology of the shea tree, its usage and that of the shea butter extracted from the nuts of the shea fruit. Shea butter is the most valuable product in the Shea tree and its use as raw or in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products was expanded in the last years. The aim was to carry out comparative study between imported South African raw Shea Butter, one sample from Poland and samples from Libyan market on their physical properties (organoleptic), thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatogram, phytochemical screening and diphenylpicrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging activity. As well as antimicrobial screening. Organoleptic test was carried out by comparing color and odor. TLC chromatogram was performed by spotting solution of samples in hexane on TLC plate and eluted twice in hexane: ethylacetate 8:2 to get good separation. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the presence of carbohydrates (Fehling test), steroids, and triterpens (Salkwiski test). DPPH assay was carried out by spraying TLC sample spots by 0.2% DPPH methanolic solution. Antimicrobial test was conducted on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Mueller-Hinton agar was used with ciprofolxacin as +ve control and DMSO as–ve control. As a result, Shea Butter samples showed wide diversity in color and odor which considered normal except two white samples that might undergo refining process, while spreadability and TLC chromatograms were similar. Samples and control showed presence of carbohydrates, steroids and triterpens. Control and samples had DPPH scavenging activity. Shea Butter control and samples had no antimicrobial activities against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.
Hanin Nafed . Mughrbi, Sakina Salem Mohammed Saadawi, Khairi Ali Alennabi, , Kholoud Lotf, Nesrin Saleh Ali Abdulnabi(4-2020)
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Phytochemicals, Nutritional Value, Antioxidant, and Anticoagulant Activity of Lactuca sativa L. Leaves and Stems

Abstract The main ingredient in the daily salad dish is the leaves of Lactuca sativa, while the stems are usually discarded and not eaten. This study was conducted to compare the stems and leaves of two selected L. sativa varieties (L. sativa var. longifolia L. and L. sativa var. capitata L.) related to the preliminary phytochemical investigation, nutrient content, DPPH assay, and in vitro anticoagulant activity by determination of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The findings revealed almost the same phytoconstituents in the leaves and stems of each variety, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and others. Exceptionally, tannins have only been detected in the leaves. Compared to the stems, the leaves of both varieties showed statistically significantly higher levels of raw protein and raw fat. For the DPPH assay, the leaves of both varieties have a statistically significantly higher antioxidant activity than the stems. The leaves and stem extract of the two selected varieties showed a significant prolongation of PT (P
Hanin Mughrbi, abdul razaq abdul salam mukhtar alouzi, Hamza Maghrbi(8-2020)
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Lactuca sativa Stems as the Source of Bioactive Compounds as well as the Leaves

Abstract: The stems of Lactuca sativa L. are usually not popular as the leaves in preparing the salads and therefore thrown away. The work is intended to compare the phytoconstituents of the leaves and stems extracts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is applied for the petroleum ether extracts of the leaf and the stem of the selected varieties (L. sativa var. longifolia L. and L. sativa var. capitata L.). A total of fifty-eight compounds were identified and quantified from the studied extracts. These compounds have belonged to various categories such as fatty acid, volatile compounds, phytosterols, triterpenes, diterpenes, vitamin E isomers, and others. Triterpenes with phytosterols represented the superior percentage among other categories. Diterpenes were quantified only in the leaves of the studied varieties. The stems exhibited a higher percentage of phytosterols, triterpenes, and volatile compounds rather than the leaves of each variety.
Hanin Nafed . Mughrbi, abdul razaq abdul salam mukhtar alouzi(4-2020)
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