المستودع الرقمي لـكلية الطب البشري

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HDAC2/3 inhibitor MI192 mitigates oligodendrocyte loss and reduces microglial activation upon injury: A potential role of epigenetics

Background: During development, oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells are susceptible to injury, leading to life-long clinical neurodevelopmental decits, which lack effective treatments. Drugs targeting epigenetic modications that inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) protect from many clinical neurodegenerative disorders. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase 2/3 (HDAC2/3) inhibitor MI192 on white matter (WM) pathology in a model of neonatal rat brain injury.Methods: Wistar rats (8.5-day-old, n = 32) were used to generate brain tissues. The tissues were cultured and then randomly divided into four groups and treated as following: group I (sham); the tissues were cultured under normoxia, group II (vehicle); DMSO only, group III (injury, INJ); the tissues were exposed to 20 minutes oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) insult, and group IV (INJ + MI192); the tissues were subjected to the OGD insult and then treated with the MI192 inhibitor. On culture day 10, the tissues were xed for biochemical and histological examinations. Results: The results showed that inhibition of HDAC2/3 activity alleviated WM pathology. Specically, MI192 treatment signicantly reduced cell death, minimized apoptosis, and mitigates the loss of the MBP+ OLs and their precursors (NG2+ OPCs). Additionally, MI192 decreased the density of reactive microglia (OX−42+). These ndings demonstrate that the inhibition of HDAC2/3 activity post-insult alleviates WM pathology through mechanism(s) including preserving OL lineage cells and suppressing microglial activation. Conclusion: The ndings of this study suggest that HDAC2/3 inhibition is a rational strategy to preserve WM or reverse its pathology upon newborn brain injury. Keywords: Brain injury, Epigenetics, MI192, Microglia, Oligodendrocyte
Mansur Ennuri Shmela, Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Emad M. Bennour(8-2021)
عرض موقع المنشور

Impact of Placenta Previa on Maternal and Neonatal Outcome

Background and aims. Placenta previa is one of the major disorders occurs during pregnancy, when placental tissue is abnormally placed in lower uterine segment over or near the internal cervical os. The greatest risk of placenta previa is bleeding. Bleeding often occurs in the lower part of the uterus as it begins to stretch and lengthen in preparation of delivery. The aim of this study was to determine the maternal and neonatal outcome of different types of placenta previa and associated risk factors. Methods. This was a retrospective study conducted at Aljala maternity hospital of Tripoli, Libya. Hospital chart records of one year (1st January to 31st December 2019). Chart records included all women who had undergone cesarean section for placenta previa. Results. During the study period, there were 92 cases of cesarean sections done for placenta previa, which was (0.95 %) of total deliveries, (43.47%) had type III PP, (26.08%) had type IV PP, (16.30%) had type II PP, (14.12%) had type I PP, (43.47%) delivered by emergency c/s, and (56.60%) delivered by elective c/s. Majority of women were in age group (30-35) years (41.30%). About (57.60%) of the patient were multipara (1-3 deliveries), (88.04%) patients had history of cesarean section, and (31.52%) patients had history of evacuation and curettage procedure (E&C). Approximately (38.04%) of babies were preterm, (25%) were low birth weight babies, (3.26%) neonatal death, (23.19%) of babies had NICU admission, (75%) of patients had blood transfusion, (21.73%) of patients had hysterectomy, and (34.78%) of patients had ICU admission. Conclusion. Placenta previa danger to both the mother and the baby with high maternal morbidity and adverse perinatal outcome. Advanced maternal age, multiparity, and previous histories of cesarean section and E&C were significantly associated risk factors of placenta previa.
Zeinab Saleh, ٌٌRehab Jerbi(8-2022)
موقع المنشور

Compliance of Nurses with Hand Hygiene Guidelines in Tripoli University Hospital, 2019

Background Health care-associated infections (HAIs) result in high morbidity, decreased personal satisfaction, and mortality. Implementing infection prevention and control strategies such as hand hygiene (HH) promotion is critical to reduce the risk of the HAI and protect patients. Aims This study aimed to determine the compliance rate of HH among nurses in Tripoli University Hospital (TUH, previously known as Tripoli Medical Center). Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in different departments at TUH, starting from May 1st to October 31st, 2019. An observational checklist based on the “five moments for hand hygiene” of World Health Organization (WHO) was used. There were 271 nurses who interacted with 1,213 patients, a total of 3,452 HH episodes, and 6,065 cases of HH that were collected in this study, and data were statistically analyzed. Results The overall HH compliance rate was 56.9%. Most of the nurses (86%) preferred to use HH after contact with individual patients and 71.6% after contact with patients' environment. There was, however, low percentage of HH prior to patient contact (35.1%). The compliance rate was higher among nurses of the age group of less than 20 years (60.8%), non-Libyan (60.7%), and those who received formal training (60.5%). Conclusion In general, the HH compliance rate was low among nurses working in TUH. Education is an important factor that impacts the practice of HH pre- and postpatient contact. Wider studies that include assessment of pre- and posteducation courses should be conducted in the future.
Rehab Jerbi, Miluda R. Elhamadi(9-2022)
موقع المنشور

Clinical Characteristics of Covid-19 in Libya: Case Series

Background and objectives: In the face of emerging and rapidly spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in Libya, it is important to fully understand the spectrum of initial symptoms of the infected patients in order to identify new cases as early as possible. The current study describes the initial observation of clinical characteristics of COVID-19 among Libyan patients. Early detection and identification of suspected cases should lead to systematic screening for the disease and could be helpful to ensure immediate isolation until a definite diagnosis is made. Methods: This case series study evaluated 325 confirmed COVID-19 infected patients who made a contact with Covid- 19 Emergency Response Centre (CERC) in the period from October 20, 2020, to November 30, 2020. All cases were diagnosed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase- chain-reaction test (RT-PCR). Data were extracted from Zendesk Software in CERC and SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: In our study, the mean (SD) age of infected patients was 57.6 (19.1%) years, with 59% were ≥ 50 years and 194 (60%) were male. Our study found that 215 (66%) of our patients had shortness of breath. Shortness of breath was identified as the commonest clinical feature among the infected patients in this study. However, we found that 179 (55%) of patients had fever, which was similar to many studies conducted previously on the COVID-19 patients. In our study, about 165 (51%) of patients had cough and 78 (24%) of our patients had anosmia and ageusia. Conclusion: This case series demonstrated that the characteristics of Libyan COVID-19 patients were generally similar to what was published in other literatures, although we reported more respiratory symptoms at presentation such as shortness of breath (66%) and generalized fatigability (61%) as the commonest features in the study.
Ehmeid Muammer Mohamed Khalifa(3-2021)
عرض موقع المنشور

Histone deacetylase 2 inhibitor valproic acid attenuates bisphenol A-induced liver pathology in male mice

Accumulating evidence indicates the role of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) in many pathological conditions. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has potential for the treatment of many diseases/abnormalities. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, this study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of the Food and Drug Administration–approved HDAC2 inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) against BPA-induced liver pathology. We randomly divided 30 adult male Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old; N = 6) into five groups: group 1, no treatment (sham control (SC)); group 2, only oral sterile corn oil (vehicle control (VC)); group 3, 4 mg/kg/day of oral BPA (single dose (BPA group)); group 4, 0.4% oral VPA (VPA group); and group 5, oral BPA + VPA (BPA + VPA group). At the age of 10 weeks, the mice were euthanized for biochemical and histological examinations. BPA promoted a significant decrease in the body weight (BW), an increase in the liver weight, and a significant increase in the levels of liver damage markers aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the BPA group compared to SC, as well as pathological changes in liver tissue. We also found an increase in the rate of apoptosis among hepatocytes. In addition, BPA significantly increased the levels of oxidative stress indices, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonylation but decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the BPA group compared to SC. In contrast, treatment with the HDAC2 inhibitor VPA significantly attenuated liver pathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and also enhanced GSH levels in VPA group and BPA + VPA group. The HDAC2 inhibitor VPA protects mice against BPA-induced liver pathology, likely by inhibiting oxidative stress and enhancing the levels of antioxidant-reduced GSH.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Zaynab Osama Alshibani, Rabia Omar abdullah Alghazeer, Mohamed Elhensheri, Refaat. M. Tabagh, Areej A. Eskandrani, Wafa S. Alansari, Mahmoud M. Habibulla, Ghalia Shamlan(6-2022)
عرض موقع المنشور

Nigella sativa oil alleviates mouse testis and sperm abnormalities induced by BPA: potentially through redox homeostasis?

Background & aim: There is significant evidence indicating that endocrine disrupted bisphenol A (BPA) seriously endangers human health. In males, BPA affects testis architecture and sperm quality, and ultimately reduces fertility. This study explored the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa (NS) seed extract on testis and sperm abnormalities in BPA-exposed mice and characterized the underlying mechanism. Methods: Forty male Swiss albino mice (5.5 weeks old, N = 8 per group) were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, normal control, Group II, vehicle control (sterile corn oil); Group III, NS-exposed (oral 200 mg/kg); Group IV, BPA-exposed (oral 400 μg/kg body weight); Group V, BPA + NS-exposed mice. Animals were treated for 6 weeks and sacrificed for biochemical and histological examination. Results: The results indicated that BPA exposure results in significant testis and sperm abnormalities. Specifically, BPA promoted a marked reduction in the body and testis compared with the control group. Histopathological findings showed that BPA caused a widespread degeneration of spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous epithelium, decreased sperm counts and motility, and augmented sperm abnormalities, and whereas little alteration to sperm DNA was observed. In addition, BPA increased the levels of the lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced the levels of the antioxidant marker, reduced glutathione (GSH). Treatment with NS oil extract during BPA exposure significantly alleviated testis and sperm abnormalities, reduced MDA levels, and enhanced GSH levels. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that NS oil protects mice against BPA-induced sperm and testis abnormalities, likely by suppressing levels of the oxidative stress marker, MDA, and enhancing the levels of the antioxidant marker, GSH.
Mohamed A M Al Griw (5-2022)
موقع المنشور

Blocking of NF-kB/p38MAPK pathways mitigates oligodendrocyte pathology in a model of neonatal white matter injury

Reactive gliosis and inflammation are risk factors for white matter injury (WMI) development, which are correlated with the development of many neurodevelopmental deficits with no treatment. This study aimed to understand the mechanisms correlated with WMI, with a particular focus on the role of nuclear factor‑kappa B (NF‑kB) and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways. Seven‑day‑old Wistar rats were used to generate cerebellar tissue slices. Slices were cultured and randomly allocated to one of 3 groups and treated as follows: group‑I (control); group‑II (WMI), slices were subjected to 20 min of oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD); group‑III (WMI+ blockers), slices were subjected to OGD and treated with the blockers. Results showed that OGD insult triggered a marked increase in the apoptosis among WM elements, as confirmed by TUNEL assay. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed that there was a significant decrease in the percent of MBP+ OLs and NG2+ OPCs, and myelin integrity. There was also a significant increase in the percent of reactive microglia and astrocytes. BrdU immunostaining revealed there was an increase in the percent of proliferating microglia and astrocytes. Q‑RT‑PCR results showed OGD upregulated the expression levels of cytokines (TNF‑α, IL‑1, IL‑6, and IL‑1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). On the other hand, treatment with BAY11 or SB203580 significantly enhanced the OL survival, restored myelin loss, and reduced microglia and astrocyte reactivity, and downregulated the iNOS and cytokine expression. Our findings demonstrate that blocking of NF‑KB/p38 MAPK pathways alleviated reactive gliosis, inflammation, and OL loss upon WMI. The findings may help to develop therapeutic interventions for WMI.
Mohamed A. Al-Griw, Michael G. Salter, Ian C. Wood(1-2022)
موقع المنشور

Seroprevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Antibodies among People Living with HIV: A Cross-sectional Study from Tripoli University Hospital

Background/Aims: Patients with preexisting morbidities(e.g., malignancy, posttransplant, and heart failure) are recognized to be at increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‑2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) infection, as well as increased risk of mortality after infection. However, there are conflicting data on the susceptibility and prevalence of infection among people living with HIV (PLWH), with higher, lower, and equal prevalence to the general population were reported. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of SARS‑CoV‑2 antibodies among PLWH who are attending clinical care at the Department of Infectious Diseases of Tripoli University Hospital. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study conducted during the period from October 01, 2021 to December 01, 2021 at the (Department of Infectious Diseases) outpatient clinic of Tripoli University Hospital. The OnSite Coronavirus Disease 2019 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (CTK Biotech, San Diego County, California, USA) was used to determine the presence of antibodies against the spike protein of SARS‑CoV‑2 in the collected serum samples. The test results were reported as “Negative” or “Positive” as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: A total of 108 PLWH were included in the study. Sixty‑nine (64%) were male, and the mean age for participants was 44 years. Specific IgG/IgM antibodies for SARS‑CoV‑2 were detected in 31 individuals, representing a seroprevalence of 28.7%. Conclusions: High seroprevalence of SARS‑CoV‑2 antibodies among nonvaccinated PLWH attending clinical care at Tripoli University Hospital. They require pritorization on vaccination and boosting
Nader Shalaka(12-2021)
عرض موقع المنشور