Prof.Dr. SehamAL-Azreg

Department of Animal Pathology & Clinical Pathology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

Full name

Prof.Dr. Seham AL-Abed Hassan AL-Azreg

َQualifications

Doctor of Phiosophy

Academic Rank

Professor

Biography

Seham AL-Azreg is one of the staff members at the department of 2 faculty of 6. He is working as a since 2013-10-05. He teaches several subjects in his major and has several puplications in the field of his interest.

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Qualifications

Doctor of Phiosophy


5 ,2010

Publications

Clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of primary nasal osteosarcoma in a Libyan cat

Background: Although bone tumors are common pathologies in companion animals, limited reports describe nasal osteosarcoma (OSA) in cats. Case description: A case of nasal OSA in a local Libyan cat was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli-Libya, with nasal swelling and discharges and facial deformity. The radiological findings revealed nasal osteolysis with the absence of evidence of lung metastasis. In addition, fungal growth was not identified in microbiological culture. Furthermore, the pathological examination has grossly revealed a destructed nasal bone due to the presence of a tumor mass, with a mucohemorrhagic nasal discharge and absence of metastasis. OSA was confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: This report presents the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a primary nasal OSA in a Libyan cat with no tumor metastasis to other body organs.
Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Seham AL-Abed Hassan AL-Azreg, ٍٍSamer Khalifa Khalil Tmumen, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Abdulkareem Khalifa Ali Elbaz, Mahir Kubba, Al-Asayed R. Al-Attar, Emad M R Bennour(12-2019)
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Clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of primary nasal osteosarcoma in a Libyan cat

Abstract Background: Although bone tumors are common pathologies in companion animals, limited reports describe nasal osteosarcoma (OSA) in cats. Case description: A case of nasal OSA in a local Libyan cat was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli–Libya, with nasal swelling and discharges and facial deformity. The radiological findings revealed nasal osteolysis with the absence of evidence of lung metastasis. In addition, fungal growth was not identified in microbiological culture. Furthermore, the pathological examination has grossly revealed a destructed nasal bone due to the presence of a tumor mass, with a mucohemorrhagic nasal discharge and absence of metastasis. OSA was confirmed histopathologically. Conclusion: This report presents the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a primary nasal OSA in a Libyan cat with no tumor metastasis to other body organs. Keywords: Cat, Nasal cavity, Primary osteosarcoma.
Mohamed Hamrouni S. Abushhiwa, Seham AL-Abed Hassan AL-Azreg, ٍٍSamer Khalifa Khalil Tmumen, Abdulrhman Mohamed Salah Alrtib, Abdulkareem Khalifa Ali Elbaz, Mahir A. Kubba, Al-Asayed R. Al-Attar, Emad M R Bennour(1-2019)
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Comparative histopathology and immunohistochemistry of human and canine mammary tumors

This study aimed at establishing aspects of comparison between canine and human mammary gland tumors. In order to achieve that, 44 specimens of canine mammary tumors and 70 specimens of human breast tumors were examined in order to state points of similarity in morphology, cells of origin, behavior and existence of tissue markers. We found that the ratio of benign to malignant forms was 4.5% to 95.5% in canine samples and 45.7% to 54.3% in human samples. In both species, malignant tumors composed of infiltrating ductal cells were in the forefront despite dissimilarity in nomenclature. Other kinds of lower rate of existence included, invasive micro-papillary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma and invasive comedo-carcinoma which have displayed similar morphology and terminology in both species. Chondroid and squamous differentiation were found in human and canine specimens. In human samples, fibro-adenoma mounted up to 30 out of 32 benign tumors (93.8%). Her-2 and Ki-67 were detected in the specimens of both species but ER was detected in human specimens only. Our findings suggest a significant degree of resemblance between certain mammary tumor in canine and human. Such findings are in support of employing dogs in research investigation for human mammary tumors.
Seham ALAzreg(7-2018)
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Cellular and molecular etiology of hepatocyte injury in a murine model of environmentally induced liver abnormality

Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model. The results showed a significant increase in liver weight. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE-induced hepatotoxicity which appeared as heavily congested central vein and blood sinusoids as well as leukocytic infiltration. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates hepatocellular apoptosis was evident in the treated mice compared to control. TCE was also found to induce oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker. There was also a significant decrease in the DNA content of the hepatocytes of the treated groups compared to control. Agarose gel electrophoresis also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the liver cells, indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. These results suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new chemical prior to its arrival into the consumer market. Keywords: Apoptosis, DNA damage, Environmental toxicant, Liver, Oxidative stres
Seham ALAzreg(9-2016)
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Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the lateral abdominal wall of local Libyan ewes

Gross and histopathological features of surgically excised squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) observed in thirteen local Libyan ewes were reported. The age of the ewes enrolled in the current study ranged from 2 to 3 years. The cases were admitted to private veterinary clinics in south-western region of Tripoli, Libya, during the period between July 2014 and October 2015. All lesions were located in the right and left lateral abdominal wall (caudo-ventrally) with a size range of 8 to 11 cm in diameter. The tumor masses have been removed by surgical excision. The histopathological examination of surgically excised masses has revealed the characteristic cell nests of SCC showing central keratinization and hyalinization with presence of apoptotic bodies, fattened keratinocytes, and a heavy interstitial infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The follow up of the cases showed no signs of tumor reoccurrence. In conclusion, SCC in Libyan sheep affects mainly the woolless areas and can be successfully removed by surgical excision
Seham ALAzreg(8-2016)
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Fertility and Reproductive Outcome in Mice Following Trichloroethane (TCE) Exposure

Exposure to trichloroethane (TCE), an industrial solvent, has been shown to be negatively associated with reproductive performance. The present study was performed to assess the effects of TCE exposure on the reproductive performance and outcome in mice during a critical developmental window of later reproductive life. A group of female mice were injected intraperitoneally twice weekly for three weeks with TCE (100 and 400 μg/kg). Mice were followed up for signs of toxicity and death. Changes in uterine tissues have also been investigated by histopathology. The results showed that TCE exposure has reduced the number of F0 fertile females comparing to controls. Moreover, TCE exposure resulted in a decreased pups number and changed sex ratio in the litter of F0 TCEtreated dams. Histopathological examination revealed a TCEinduced uterine toxicity appeared as a severe endometrial hyperplasia with squamous cell metaplasia and adenomyosis. These results indicate that TCE exposure during a critical reproductive developmental window could affect the fertility and interfere with the reproductive outcome in mice. Keyword: TCE; fertility; reproductive outcome; uterus; mice.
Seham ALAzreg(1-2016)
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Chondroblastic Osteosarcoma in a Cat: Case Report

Osteosarcoma is one of the most important bone tumors of human beings and pet animals. It is a rapidly progressive, early metastasize, osteolytic, highly fatal tumor. It may arise from central medullary osteoblasts, peripheral periosteal or perichonderal cells, and extra skeletal tissues or may have a pluripotent potential. A Shirazi Native breed cat was examined for the presence of multilocular lobulated partially encapsulated masses in the external ear. The excised tissue revealed anaplastic, chondroblast and osteoblast mesenchymal differentiations associated with hypercellularity, pleomorphism and increase in mitosis, consistent with chondroblastic osteosarcoma.
Seham ALAzreg(1-2016)
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Oxidative Stress Mediated Cytotoxicity of Trichloroethane in a Model of Murine Splenic Injury

The present in vivo murine study was aimed to investigate the long-term effect of repeated administration of low-dose of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE) over three weeks on the spleen and peripheral blood cells, and the possible role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced toxicity. The results showed neither adverse clinical signs nor mortality on the TCE-treated mice. However, significant changes were noticed in the spleen of those animals. Grossly, the spleen of TCE-treated group was congested and enlarged (splenomegaly). Histpathologically, the splenic tissues of TCE-treated mice showed signs of toxicity as highly activated germinal centers of the white pulp with minimal apoptotic reaction as well as a prominent megakarocytosis and infiltration of the red pulp by comparatively increased number of eosinophiIs and mature lymphocytes were detected. In addition, lymphocyte numbers were decreased in peripheral blood as well as basophils. In contrast, there was an increase in monocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation. In addition, lipid peroxidation/ malondialdehyde formation, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was significantly induced by TCE treatment in the sera and spleen of mice, suggesting an overall increase in oxidative stress. These results provide further support to a role of oxidative stress in TCE-induced cell death, which could result in an impaired spleen function. This study concludes that attenuation of TCE-induced splenic damage in mice provides an approach for preventive and/or therapeutic strategies. Keywords: Environmental Toxicant, Spleen, Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, Apoptosis, Mice
Seham ALAzreg(1-2016)
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a Ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma in a domestic Persian-mix cat (Felis catus)ن

A nine years old Persian-mix female cat has been suffering from recurrent bilateral ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma for many years. Masses were first noticed and resected five years ago, but reoccurred later on two more occasions. The animal has usually experienced distressful ear canal problems in association with these masses. The tumor cellular morphology was reviewed, described and discussed. This article is the first in documenting ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma in a Persian-mix cat in Libya. Keywords: Ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma, Feline ear tumors, Feline tumors, Otitis externa
Seham ALAzreg(5-2018)
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Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus)

A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders. Keywords: Congestive heart failure, Endocardiosis, Myomatous valvular degeneration, Ostrich.
Seham ALAzreg(11-2013)
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Feline Injection Site Sarcoma (FISS): Clinicopathologic Findings in Cats.

Abstract Feline injection site sarcoma (FISS) is a subcutaneous tumor were recognized among four cats aged between 5-7 years old. This study included four cases, which referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Tripoli from October 2011 to October 2013. All cats had a history of sudden growth of a subcutaneous mass located on the dorsal midline of the neck, just cranial to the shoulders.The diagnosis was confirmed based on characteristic histopathological finding. Grossly the tumor was infiltrative, irregular, lobulated, extensively ulcerated, necrotic with purulent and/or haemorrhagic exudation with different size among the cases. In all cases the microscopic examination revealed infiltratively growing pleomorphic tumor cells and mononuclear cell aggregations with prominent fibroblastic proliferation. The present investigation shows the first report on FISS in different local and imported cats in Libya
Seham ALAzreg(1-2015)
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Pathology of Fatal Multi-Organ Impairment in a Rottweiler Dog

Abstract The aim of this study is to define the main etiological factor(s) which have contributed to the death of a 7 years old Rottweiler male dog. The dog was thought to suffer from cardiac problems and died shortly after admission. External examination revealed pale mucous membranes and subcutaneous edema in the neck and abdominal regions. On evisceration, the liver was enlarged and both kidneys were slightly shrunk with grayish discoloration of their cortices. The wall of the urinary bladder was thickened while the prostate gland enlarged. There was left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left atrioventricular valves showed characteristic features of endocardiosis while the right one had an adhering thrombus on its ventricular surface. Histopathology revealed diffuse chronic proliferative glomerulonephritis, hepatic central congestion, bronchopneumonia, myxomatous degeneration of left atrioventricular valve while the right valve had milder myxomatous changes and an adhering thrombus. The prostate was hyperplasic while the urinary bladder wall hypertrophic. We concluded that the dog has died due to multiple organic malfunctions.
Seham ALAzreg(1-2015)
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Subacute ruminal acidosis outbreak in feedlot Barki sheep due to faulty fattening practice

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is an important disorder in producing animals characterized by prolonged periods of low ruminal pH with deleterious effects on animal’s health and productivity. SARA was studied usually experimentally due to its subclinical nonspecific presentation. We present here a field outbreak of SARA in feedlot Barki sheep and the related ruminal pathological changes. Rumens of six feedlot sheep fed on high-grain fiber- deficient diets were examined for the pH of their contents as well as any abnormalities in their morphology and tissues. The results revealed that the ruminal juice of affected animals was acidic. Grossly, the ruminal mucosa was grey, hyperemic and severely thickened with multiple areas of epithelial detachment. Histopathologically, the common findings were epithelial desquamation, hydropic degeneration and ulcer formation. In addition, submuscular venular thrombosis and multifocal lesion with eosinophilic granular proteinaceous material mixed with variable numbers of inflammatory cells were noticed. This is, according to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the first example of a non-experimental field SARA outbreak in feedlot sheep and its ruminal gross and histopathological picture.
Seham AlAzreg(1-2021)


Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in human and animals: a mini review article and conclusive view

ales and females and also in animals, it could lead to severe pain, joint deformity and decrease of joint function with a consequent lowering of the productivity. Moreover it is a diagnostic challenge, the difficulty stems from the insidious onset and nonspecific presentation of the disease, as well as its subtle radiographic findings. In addition, the disease is difficult to be differentiated from conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and other inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the synovial lining. PVNS comes in two forms: localized and diffuse. Diffuse PVNS affects the entire synovium and typically occurs in large joints such as the knee or hip. Localized or nodular, PVNS is less common than the diffuse form and typically occurs in smaller joints such as the hands and feet. Involvement of bursa (PVNB, pigmented villonodular bursitis) is the least common. The incidence of pigmented villonodular synovitis is 1.8 cases per 1 million people per year. It is equally affect males and females. Animals are less commonly affected and the condition mostly misdiagnosed. Histopathologically, diffuse disease is characterized by a mononuclear stromal cell infiltrate in the synovial membrane.
Seham AlAzreg(1-2017)
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