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Degradation of endocrine disrupting compounds by ozonein synthetic water

In this research paper, ozone technology is used to eliminate pollutants in water and in wastewater treatment processes. The ozone reactions with the endocrine disrupters were studied at different gas flow rates, initial concentrations of endocrine disrupters, ozone concentrations and pH. The degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2) as single compound was the fastest reaching about 90% removal in almost 5 minutes. However, estrone (E1) degradation was the lowest reaching about 70% removal at the same time. The degradation of mixtures of the endocrine disruptors was found to proceed to lower percentages than individual components at the same conditions. During the multicomponent ozonation of the endocrine disruptors, it was found that 17β-estradiol (E2) converted to estrone (E1) at the beginning of the reaction.
shada Abdelati Elalem(9-2020)
موقع المنشور

DEGRADATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS BY OZONEIN SYNTHETIC WATER

In this research paper, ozone technology is used to eliminate pollutants in water and in wastewater treatment processes. The ozone reactions with the endocrine disrupters were studied at different gas flow rates, initial concentrations of endocrine disrupters, ozone concentrations and pH. The degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2) as single compound was the fastest reaching about 90% removal in almost 5 minutes. However, estrone (E1) degradation was the lowest reaching about 70% removal at the same time. The degradation of mixtures of the endocrine disruptors was found to proceed to lower percentages than individual components at the same conditions. During the multicomponent ozonation of the endocrine disruptors, it was found that 17β-estradiol (E2) converted to estrone (E1) at the beginning of the reaction.
Asia Ali M.Meshrghi, Mawaheb M. Zarok Derdar, Shada A. Elalem, Khaled M. Mezughi (9-2020)

أهنــــدســــة تكـــــريـــر النفــــــط

يعتبر النفط من أهم مصادر الطاقة المتاحة حاليا ه ونقله، وتكريره ، نظرا للحصول على عدة مواد أساسية وتكميلية من خالل عمليات متعددة. وتشمل هذه المواد الغاز المسال، والجازولين، والكيروسين، ووقود الطائرات، والديزل، والوقود الغازي، وزيت الوقود، باال ضافة إلى زيوت التزييت، واألسفلت والشحوم والمذيبات ومنتجات الصناعات البتروكيماوية المختلفة. وللحصول على هذه المنتجات يجب أن يمر النفط الخام بمراحل تحويلية متعددة خالل مصافي بسيطة، أو مصافي تحويلية معقدة ومصانع بتروكيماوية، والتي تأخد في االعتبار العوامل للتعامل مع غازات سامة، وحفا القتصادية والبيئية، وصحة وسالمة العاملين بها، نظرا زات، ومفاعالت مختلفة . قمت من خالل هذا الكتاب بتوضيح خطوات تكرير النفط المختلفة والمرافق المساعدة طبقا للمنهج الجامعي، أو للمهندسين العاملين بهذا المجال. ويشمل الكتاب سبعة عشر فصال ، بداية من خواص النفط الفيزيائية والكيميائية، ثم منتجات النفط وخواصها، ومواصفاتها القياسي ة، وطرق التحليل الكلي والكمي للنفط، وتقدير النتاجية، واتزان المادة، والطاقة، وبرمجة المعادالت والنمذجة من خالل أمثلة متعددة ومبسطة للوحدات المختلفة. أعتمدت في ذلك على المحاضرات لطلبة الدراسات الجامعية، والعليا والخبرة العملية، والكتب والمجالت العلمية المختلفة، والمصادر العلمية من خالل شبكة المعلومات الدولية.
ميلود عبدالسلام العربي العربي(1-2020)

أســاسيــات هنـــدســــة التآكل

التآكل ظاهرة عامة لتلف معظم المواد سواء معدنية أو غير معدنية والتي تسبب فقدان جزء كبير من هذه المواد نتيجة لتعرضها لظروف تشغيل أو االستخدامات العملية. تقدر تكلفة هذا التلف بما يقارب 3-6 %من االنتاج القوم ي للدول الصناعية، وكذلك التي يعتمد دخلها على إنتاج وتصنيع النفط والغاز بال ضافة إلى الصناعات الكيميائية والبتروكيميائية وتحلية المياه، وتوليد الكهرباء. وال يقتصر ضرر التآكل على الصناعات بل يتعداها إلى االستخدامات المنزلية للمواد وكذلك وسائل المواصالت المختلفة. من الصعب إيقاف هذه األ ضرار بالكامل ولكن بالمكان التقليل منها عن طريق اتباع خطوات معينة بداية من التصميم الجيد واستخدام طرق المقاومة المختلفة مثل إضافة مثبطات الت آكل والحماية الكاثودية والتغليف والطالء واختيار المواد المناسبة والتحكم بظروف التشغيل والمراقبة الجيدة واالستفادة المثلى من التقدم العلمي في مجال التكنلوجيا والبرمجيات الحديثة. حاولت في هذا الكتاب المنهجي أن أوضح هذه الخطوات بطريقة مبسطة للطلبة والمهندسين العاملين في المجاالت الصناعية المختلفة. يشمل الكتاب اثني عشر فصال اعتمدت مكونات كل فصل على الخبرة التدريسية لهذا المنهج خالل السنوات الماضية، بالضافة إلى الخبرة العملية من خالل الشراف والمتابعة لظاهرة ومعالجة التآكل. يتضمن كل فصل عدد ا من األسئلة واألمثلة التي تغطى كل األجزاء، بالضافة إلى عدد من المسائل لتوضيح المعادالت المتضمنة في الكتاب.
ميلود عبدالسلام العربي العربي(1-2017)

Applied Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic is an interesting and important subject for all branches of engineering students. Many industrial complexes depend on a number of devices such as turbines, pumps, compressors, expanders, boilers, heat exchangers, evaporators, condensers, heaters, diffusers, nozzles and expansion valves etc. These devices contribute to an efficient working of the plant based on the laws of thermodynamics. This text is developed on this principle based on my teaching experience in teaching this subject for the last three decades to both chemical and mechanical engineering students at both undergraduate and graduate levels. The text is a collection of examples and end of each chapter practical problem that extracted from different engineering journals, texts and course examinations. The material is organized in a manner that easily followed by students and instructors. First is the application of the first law of thermodynamics as system and processes, and then for flow process under steady state and unsteady state for different devices. Heat of reaction or combustion is the heart of all industrial processes for power plants when using different types of fuels. Fuels heating values and their flame temperatures provide insight to these fuels. Understanding the second law for the above devices and process give a complete picture for better energy utilization through exergy analysis of thermodynamic cycles are deeply discussed through separate chapters in gas power plants, steam and organic power plant and refrigeration cycles including both vapor compression and absorption cycles. In a separate chapter that discusses Maxwell relations and application of equation of state to determine the enthalpy, entropy specific heats and Joule Thomson coefficient. To improve the efficiency many power generation plants nowadays are using combined cycles either gas and vapor cycles or even the new renewable and friendly environment fuel cells. The application of both laws is applied to gas liquefaction an important subject in energy storage, air separation, and natural gas liquefaction.
Mailod Abdussalam Alarabi Alarabi(1-2020)

Phase and Chemical Equilibria

The textbook was developed from course notes that have been used in the undergraduate and graduate chemical engineering classes. My intention is to have a text that cover most of the material required by undergraduate curriculum and extend this idea to the graduate course in phase and chemical equilibria. There are a number of good textbooks that partially fulfill this requirement; however, they are not arranged in a manner that can be easily followed by students or instructors. This textbook starts with a simple model which represents ideal behavior followed by moderate deviation from ideality with application of all up-to-date activity coefficient models. A separate chapter is introduced that covers the azeotropic behavior of non-ideal liquid mixtures that find a wide industrial application, and a brief theoretical review of different methods for separating azeoropic mixtures. Residual properties are then introduced to account for the vapor phase non-ideality using fugacity and fugacity coefficient correlations models followed by the most practical equations of state. A separate chapter is given on the application of Henry's law especially in environmental and enhanced oil recovery practices. Emphasis is given to liquid-liquid, vapor-liquid-liquid and solid-fluid equilibria based on the latest literature publications followed by thermodynamic consistency test models. The importance of phase equilibrium of undefined mixture in oil and gas industry is added. A chapter on chemical equilibrium is given at the end of the textbook starting with basic problems followed by industrial problems at high temperature and pressure. Multi-reactions equilibrium solved by minimization of Gibbs free energy are cited. Many worked-out examples plus end of chapter problems are given in each chapter. Solved problems are based on hand calculator, spreadsheet and a simple MATLAB program calculation without relying heavily on commercial software. A step-by-step procedure starts with simple examples and then progressively advances to more challenging problems for ternary and quaternary system. This procedure will help students or practicing engineers to gain self-confidence to fully understand and practice real process or design problems
Mailod Abdussalam Alarabi Alarabi(1-2017)

Energy recovery of a rotary kiln system in a calcium oxide plant

The dominant source of calcium carbonate is limestone; the most common constituent of all rocks. It occurs in nature with clay, silica and other minerals, which may interfere in many applications. Synthetic calcium carbonate is produced on a large scale where a calcium chloride stream is treated with sodium or ammonium carbonate to produce a high grade of calcium carbonate. In turn, calcium carbonate is heated to 900–1000 degree centigrade in a horizontal lime kiln to produce calcium oxide (burned lime). Calcium oxide is used extensively in cement, iron and steel industries due to the low cost of the material and its accepted chemical properties. In this study, composition of raw meal, ultimate analysis of the fuel, dust contents in the exhaust gases, losses in ignation (COI) and exhaust gas composition in the preheated suspension are calculated. The heat losses from kiln exhaust are minimized. A secondary shell on the kiln surface is also investigated. In this work mathematical models for the calculations of inside heat transfer on the rotary are used, and the total energy utilized by burning fuel oil in the process of calcium oxide production is also calculated. The heat losses for kiln exhaust gas, hot air from the cooler stock losses and radiation losses from kiln surface are also minimized. A secondary shell on the kiln surface is studied in the present study, where 4% of total energy input is saved. This energy saving would result in a considerable reduction of fuel consumption in the kiln system. The overall efficiency would be improved by 5%. Keywords: rotary kiln reactor, radiant heat transfer, coating, combustion.
M. Aldeib, abdulati Elhadi tater Elalem, sead mabruk mohamed elgezawi(1-2009)
موقع المنشور

Reduction of Automobile Carbon Dioxide Emissions

The automotive industry is one of the major manufacture sectors in developed nations. It accounts for almost 5% of total manufacture value of industrialized countries such as USA, Japan, France and England. The automobiles are also an essential end user of gasoline and naphtha. This leads to environmental impact with major contribution to output of greenhouse gases. In 2000 transportation contributes around 20 percent of world carbon dioxide emissions. International environmental standards and specifications organizations wary about the long term effect of carbon dioxide emissions. Adding to the environmental impact, the expected shortages in the supply of petroleum products productions in the near future are leading factors for producing more fuel efficient vehicles. The adoption of producing body cars light in weights to minimize the fuel consumption becomes major priority in automobile industries in recent years. Body cars produced from fibber-glass reinforced thermoplastics is investigated in this paper from carbon dioxide emissions point of view. The objective is to reach major reductions in the amount of carbon dioxide emitted. This was achieved due to the considerable weight reduction of the automobile body reaching to 30% saving in fuel consumption. Polypropylene reinforced with fibber-glass is prepared in our laboratory. The stress strain time correlation is modelled in order to produce the blend appropriate for the production of body cars with acceptable specifications. A single screw extruder is used to prepare the required samples. Mathematical models are used to evaluate stress strain correlations of the reinforced samples. Additions of 30% fibber-glass to the blend lead to produce cars with the required stress specifications.
abdulati Elhadi tater Elalem, M. S. EL-Bourawi (1-2010)
موقع المنشور